Diet for diabetes

Dietary foods that normalize blood glucose levels in diabetes mellitus

A diet for diabetes is not only a recommendation to improve the quality of life, it is necessary. Every patient should follow dietary advice. This is necessary in order to minimize the risks of acute complications, as well as deterioration of the general condition.

A balanced diet allows you to establish metabolic processes in the body, which is extremely important when diabetes is diagnosed. The disease represents a potential danger to life, because it can be accompanied by critical conditions: ketoacidosis, failure of internal organs, hypoglycemia, etc. For the sake of his health, the patient must understand not only the essence of the disease itself, but also its effect on the body. This will help you organize a rational menu, develop healthy habits and learn to take your doctor's prescriptions seriously.

Etiology and pathogenesis

The first data on diabetes known to science date back to the Hellenic period. Of course, the ancient Greeks did not have diagnostic skills and did not know the nature of disease. But already at that time (IV-I century BC) doctors tried to systematize information about symptoms and therapy.

According to the WHO, today the disease affects about 4% of people, and takes 3 million lives annually, which is more than the figure for AIDS.

The disease has multiple etiologies and is accompanied by a wide range of symptoms. It is based on insulin deficiency, which can be absolute or relative.

Etiology of diabetes:

  • overweight;
  • injuries – physical and psychological;
  • viral diseases that caused complications;
  • aggravated heredity;
  • autoimmune diseases.

The provoking factors are long-term frequent stress and bad eating habits. People who often overeat are at risk by including excessive amounts of carbohydrates and sugar in their menu.

The main role in the pathogenesis is played by the disruption of the islet apparatus of the pancreas, as a result of which insulin is produced in abnormally small amounts or is not produced at all.

Symptoms of diabetes:

  • general weakness;
  • weight loss;
  • increased urine production, frequent urination;
  • slow wound healing;
  • decreased libido;
  • itching of the mucous membrane;
  • hair and nail loss;
  • increased appetite, constant thirst.

The disease is one of those that require mandatory therapy. It is impossible to fight the symptoms of diabetes with folk remedies. A visit to the doctor is necessary, and the earlier the diagnosis, the better the prognosis. In addition to a course of medication, a rational nutritional system is also needed.

Classification of diseases and the role of nutrition

The diet is determined by the degree of inhibition of the pancreas itself.

The disease is classified as follows:

  1. Type I diabetes is an autoimmune disease and a relatively rare form. It is characterized by an extremely low level of insulin production; in some cases, the patient's body does not produce this hormone at all. Patients are forced to take regular injections, which is why the term "insulin dependence" is used. A diet aimed at lowering glucose levels helps to improve well-being and avoid the risk of hypoglycemia.
  2. Diabetes II occurs in 90% of cases. It often develops in people who are overweight and have a sedentary lifestyle, who do not pay attention to their diet and consume a lot of foods that increase glucose levels (flour, potatoes, sweets). The diet should be structured so that the weight gradually returns to normal. Moderate physical activity is recommended for such patients.
  3. Gestational diabetes is a disease that can develop in pregnant women, especially with severe toxicosis in the second trimester. A diet for gestational diabetes should include a sufficient amount of nutritional supplements and careful weight control. In most cases, after the end of pregnancy, health returns to normal, but there is a risk of developing type II diabetes. To avoid this, you should follow the recommended diet after giving birth.

In 1% of cases, other types of diseases develop: latent, steroid, neurogenic, renal, MODY, bronze and prediabetes. Diet for the type of diabetes that is included in one of these categories is determined by the doctor, taking into account many factors.

Types of diets for diabetes

The basis of therapy in the treatment of diabetes mellitus is medical therapy aimed at reducing glucose levels and restoring normal insulin levels. At the same time, doctors insist on the importance of moderate physical activity and proper nutrition.

About 80% of patients are overweight. Often excess body weight exceeds normal levels by 15 percent or more. Normalizing body weight noticeably improves the general condition of patients: stabilizes blood pressure, improves the work of the nervous system, reduces the level of chronic fatigue and improves well-being. But with such a diagnosis, extreme methods of rapid weight loss are strictly contraindicated, and many, even the most popular, diets are not suitable for patients with diabetes. You cannot choose a power system based on the reviews of friends or even the recommendations of experts on the Internet. Experimenting with "proven" diets, such as, for example, the Kremlin or Dukan, can cause the metabolism to go even further wrong. Namely, efforts should be directed towards restoring the normalization of metabolic processes.

Types of nutrition programs

  1. A protein diet is aimed at suppressing appetite by providing the body with a large amount of protein that stimulates the production of biologically active substances. Proteins of plant and animal origin are included in the diet in equal proportions. Red meat is banned and replaced by fish, lean poultry, dairy products and protein-rich beans and grains.
  2. A low-carb diet for diabetes, based on vegetables and fruits that contain complex carbohydrates. Simple carbohydrates are prohibited, and proteins are taken in limited amounts. This nutritional system is considered strict, and it is used when the blood sugar level increases significantly - 3 times or more.
  3. A low-carb diet is gentler and suitable for those suffering from type I and type II diabetes.
  4. Buckwheat diet is indicated for normalizing metabolic processes and saturating the body with vitamins, macro- and microelements.
  5. A preventive diet is based on replacing red meat with lean protein-rich foods, using proper cooking methods and consuming fiber.
  6. Bernstein's diet is indicated for diabetes mellitus type 2, as well as for prevention. This is not just a menu, but an integrated approach to organizing a balanced diet, which can be taught even to young children.

Carbohydrate counting

A bread unit is a concept known to every diabetic. This is a conventional unit of measurement (XU), which corresponds to 10-13 g of carbohydrates and is used when calculating the caloric content of food. The patient can take 4-6 XE per meal.

1 XE fits:

  • 1 tbsp. l. sugar or honey;
  • 150 ml of juice;
  • 130 g of orange;
  • 60 g of banana;
  • 100 g of melon;
  • porridge - 2. 5 spoons. l. raw cereals;
  • milk and fermented milk drinks - 250 ml;
  • 20 g of dried fruit.

It is also important to consider the type of food and the way it is prepared. For example, lean fish fillets are allowed in limited amounts in some diets, but fatty canned fish is prohibited for all patients.

Diet for type 1 diabetes

Type 1 diabetes requires a diet that will maintain the blood glucose level at 3. 5-5. 5 mmol/liter.

Principles of nutrition:

  1. Fractional nutrition of the patient: 5-6 meals a day.
  2. The maximum daily calorie content is 2000 kcal.
  3. Carbohydrates for breakfast, lunch and dinner.
  4. A minimal snack at night.
  5. Fast carbohydrates are prohibited.
  6. Avoiding sugar, replacing it with safe analogues (stevia, synthetic sweetener).
  7. Long-acting insulin preparations are given before meals, short-acting insulin preparations are given after meals.
  8. The maximum amount of XE per meal is 8.
  9. Natural products are a priority.

Yeast-free bakery products, cheese and soy milk, unsweetened green tea, dried fruit compote, fresh fruits and vegetables, nuts and cereals are allowed. Many vegetarian dishes are suitable for diets.

Rich first courses and baking, fatty meat and fish, dry meat, pasta and fast food are prohibited. Alcohol, especially red wine, is strictly prohibited.

A week-long diet for overweight insulin-dependent people

Day no. 1

  1. A slice of bread, porridge, soft cheese, tea.
  2. Orange, pistachio.
  3. Borscht, salad, stewed cabbage, cutlet, lavash.
  4. Pomegranate, fresh cheese, fruit jelly.
  5. Steamed cauliflower, salad.
  6. A glass of milk.

Day no. 2

  1. Steamed veal, tomatoes, wheat bread, tea.
  2. Cheese, half a ripe pear.
  3. Chicken breast, pumpkin puree, salad.
  4. Grapefruit, kefir.
  5. Boiled fish, stewed cabbage.
  6. Crackers.

Day no. 3

  1. Lavash, coffee, sarmice.
  2. Strawberries, yogurt.
  3. Solid pasta, salad, steamed fish.
  4. Orange, compote.
  5. Cottage cheese casserole.
  6. Kefir.

Day no. 4

  1. Porridge, cheese, boiled egg, tea.
  2. Toast with soft cheese, cooked turkey.
  3. Pureed vegetable soup, stewed meat with vegetables, bread.
  4. Tea with cookies.
  5. Boran with chicken breast, pomegranate.
  6. Bread.

Day no. 5

  1. Fresh cheese with kefir.
  2. Pumpkin seeds, raisins.
  3. Potatoes, salad, compote.
  4. Baked pumpkin, pomegranate.
  5. Salad, pancakes on rye flour.
  6. Kefir.

Day no. 6

  1. Egg, lightly salted salmon, tea.
  2. Fresh cheese, carrots.
  3. Borscht with sorrel, vegetarian salad, lavash.
  4. Kefir, bread.
  5. Stewed eggplants with chicken fillet, fresh green peas.
  6. Crackers.

Day no. 7

  1. Porridge with ham, tea.
  2. Salad with tuna and vegetables, whole grain bread.
  3. Cabbage dishes, stewed vegetables with meat, bread.
  4. Fresh cheese, plums.
  5. Squid steak, compote.
  6. Milk.

Diet for type 2 diabetes mellitus

The point is to reduce animal fats and simple carbohydrates. It is recommended to take a break of no more than 4 hours between meals. This nutrition program is called "Diet no. 9" or "Table No. 9" and is suitable not only for patients, but also for all those who want to normalize their diet.

Diet for every day for type 2 diabetes

Day no. 1

  1. Asparagus, quail egg omelette.
  2. Salad of nuts, apples and boiled squid.
  3. Beet soup, roasted eggplants.
  4. Avocado, cocoa.
  5. Salmon steak with sauce.

Day no. 2

  1. Oatmeal, yogurt, apple.
  2. Milkshake.
  3. Roasted meat (veal) with vegetables.
  4. Cottage cheese casserole.
  5. Vegetable salad with avocado.

Day no. 3

  1. Baked egg with cheese, tomato and herbs.
  2. Steamed vegetables with hummus.
  3. Pureed vegetable soup, chicken cutlets, fresh peas.
  4. Pear and almond.
  5. Salmon with spinach, yogurt.

Day no. 4

  1. Baked apples.
  2. Toast with leafy vegetables and tuna.
  3. Beef steak, vegetable salad, parmesan cheese.
  4. Fruit sorbet.
  5. Broccoli Casserole.

Day no. 5

  1. Orange, soft cheese, wheat bread, fruit tea.
  2. Beet salad with walnuts and butter.
  3. Steamed fish, rice, grapefruit.
  4. Berries with cream.
  5. Squid steak, pomegranate.

Day no. 6

  1. Carrot souffles.
  2. Roasted Broccoli.
  3. Lenten borscht, baked chicken fillet, leafy greens, tangerine.
  4. Berry mousse.
  5. Fish with a side of steamed vegetables.

Day no. 7

  1. Baked apple with raisins, oatmeal and walnuts.
  2. Salad with vegetables and shrimp.
  3. Polenta, boiled fish, greens, kiwi.
  4. Strawberries with cream cheese.
  5. Cucumber and herb salad, tea.

Diet for gestational diabetes

Gestational diabetes occurs due to pancreatic disorders during pregnancy. The expectant mother should adhere to the following nutritional principles:

  • Exclude flour, bakery products, all sweets from the store, semolina porridge and all products with sugar.
  • BJU norm: 20 |30 |50 %. You need to balance your diet based on these indicators.
  • Include fruits, dairy and starchy foods in your diet.
  • Strictly adhere to the drinking regime. It is necessary to consume 1. 8-2 liters of drinking water per day.
  • Organize 3 main meals and 2 snacks per day.
  • Reduce the consumption of coffee and tea (no more than 2 cups per day).
  • Take special vitamin complexes as recommended by your doctor.
  • To reduce sugar in the diet, introduce herbal medicines: decoctions of linden flowers, blueberry leaves, lilac buds, celery roots.

A low-carb diet is not suitable for pregnant women. The norm of calorie consumption per day is 2000-2500 kcal.

Recommended menu for expectant mothers with high blood glucose levels

To control the glucose level, it is recommended to make a menu based on the following scheme.

  • Breakfast: porridge (oatmeal, millet, buckwheat), cereal bread, tea or dried fruit compote.
  • Second breakfast: toast with unsalted cheese, apple.
  • Lunch: porridge, vegetable salad, stew (beef or chicken).
  • Afternoon snack: cottage cheese, cracker, orange.
  • Dinner: vegetable side dish, boiled meat, juice, crackers or pita bread.

You can drink a glass of yogurt or kefir 3 hours before going to bed. Along with the diet, it is important to walk, warm up if possible and do simple exercises at home or with a trainer.

Diet for insulin-dependent diabetes in children

Children suffer more from the disease than adults, and the incidence of type 1 diabetes in this age group is higher - up to 80%. Children at risk (whose family members have diabetes) require careful monitoring of their health from birth.

Diet for diabetes in children

The rules for organizing nutrition for insulin-dependent children are even stricter than for adults. Approximate diet for a child:

  • Confectionery, sweets, bakery products, sweet soda are prohibited. Sugar should be completely eliminated from the diet.
  • Fresh vegetables and fruits are allowed, but you must be aware of the exceptions. A child with diabetes should not be given bananas, dates, persimmons, raisins, grapes or figs.
  • You should organize 6 meals and feed the child strictly according to the clock. The deviation should not exceed 20 minutes. If it is impossible to eat a full meal, the baby should be given a snack of fruit, bread or toast. Insulin-dependent children should absolutely not starve.
  • Track your fructose consumption and use this indicator as a basis when calculating the allowable amount of sweeteners.
  • An attack of hypoglycemia can be stopped with a piece of dark chocolate. An accompanying adult is advised to carry this product with them at all times.
  • Diet is important. The daily norm is calculated by an endocrinologist depending on the age and body size of the child.

It is necessary to organize a proper way of life in general. The child must be able to move and be physically active. Constant monitoring of glucose levels and regular consultation with a doctor is also necessary.

Healthy recipes for diabetes

Diet recipes are suitable not only for the diet of patients with diabetes, but also for everyone who wants to balance the menu, including healthy food. The recommended dishes are prepared from simple ingredients, but they look presentable and have a rich taste.

Vegetarian cream soup

Prepare and chop one onion, 100 g of spinach, 300 g of broccoli and 200 g each of celery and zucchini. Blanch for 15 minutes in 500 ml of water, mix with a blender. Add 200 ml of milk and 100 ml of cream to the vegetable mass, boil, add salt.

Vegetable salad

Chop 200 g of cabbage. Cut 2 cucumbers into rings, 2 tomatoes into slices. Mix the vegetables, add salt, season with olive oil.

Squid steak with onions

Pass the squid fillet (400 g) through a meat grinder, add 25 g of breadcrumbs to the minced meat. Chop the leek (50 g) and one onion, fry in a pan until half done. Finely chop greens - spinach, dill, parsley. Mix the ingredients, knead the minced meat, form the steaks. Coat each with egg, roll in breadcrumbs and fry for 2 minutes on each side.

Pancakes with blueberries on rye flour

Pour 2 g of stevia into a glass of boiling water and let it boil. Mix 200 g of fresh cheese, stevia tincture, 1 egg, 150 g of blueberries. Carefully add 200 g of rye flour, 0. 5 tsp. soda and 2 tbsp. l. sesame oil. Bake the pancakes in a non-stick pan on both sides.

Cauliflower zrazy

Boil 500 g of cauliflower florets for 10 minutes, cool and chop with a blender. Add 4 tbsp. l. rice flour, salt, let it cook for 30 minutes to dissolve the fibers. Boil and finely chop 2 eggs, add chopped green onion. Form flats from the vegetable mass, put egg and onion filling inside, and decorate with zrazyma. Roll in rice flour and fry in a pan.

Cottage cheese and pear casserole

Mix 600 g of low-fat cottage cheese, 2 eggs and 2 tbsp. l. of rice flour, mix well. Peel and chop 600 g of pears: finely dice half of them, grate the other half. Mix the pears with the cottage cheese, let it cook for 30 minutes. Place in a silicone mold, spread with sour cream, bake for 45 minutes at 180 degrees.

Fresh cheese and carrot souffles

Grind 200 g of fresh cheese, add 300 g of grated carrot. Grind 50 g of walnut kernels, 3-4 sprigs of parsley, add to the mixture. Add 2 egg yolks, then 2 beaten egg whites. Pour the mixture into the silicone molds for muffins, fill up to 2/3. Bake for 20 minutes.

The preparation of the patient's menu should be approached responsibly. It should not only be balanced, but also varied to prevent unhealthy food breakdowns or refusal to eat. A systematic approach will help maintain health, prevent worsening of the condition and significantly improve the quality of life.